HOME > Hospitals > Gangnam Severance Hospital > Departments > Laboratory Medicine > Introduction
The division diagnoses through patients’ blood and urine. The division uses biochemical, microbiological, immunological, speculum scientific, and molecular biological methods for the early detection of disease, determination of prognosis, assessment of risk factors, and monitoring the treatments. It is responsible for safe blood transfusion. Additionally, it manages cell therapy and contributes to make effective treatment guidelines.
Biochemistry – It is classified in the general chemistry tests and the special chemistry tests. Usually computer-based results are given by the automated chemistry analyzer for the general chemistry tests. Also there is a lipid-related special inspection. Tests for hormone, blood drug concentration, and HbA1c are classified into the special chemistry tests that are useful to diagnose, measure risks, and determine prognoses. Blood tests are divided into complete blood count, coagulation test, and blood gas test and so on. All tests are conducted by automated equipments and the results are reported as soon as the tests are completed. Complete blood count (CBC) includes white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), platelet count, RBC index, WBC differential, and red cell distribution width (RDW). For the additional test, peripheral blood smear (PBS) is needed to check WBC differential count, morphology, and platelet count of RBC and WBC. Especially the blood coagulation tests are divided into general coagulation tests (PT, aPTT, thrombin time, antithrombin, fibrinogen, and D-dimer) and special coagulation tests (factor assay, antiphospholipidAb, lupus anticoagulant, protein C/S, Plasminogen, PAI-1, vWF Ag, vWFRco, and PLT aggregation). They are conducted by automated coagulation analyzers and it can diagnose rare coagulation or thrombosis. The division manages the blood gas test as the most emergency inspection.
Microbiological testing – Bacteria, fungi, and parasites from patients’ specimen are cultured and classified by the inspection of clinical microbiology. By test-tube antimicrobial susceptibility testing, antibiotic therapy and dose are decided. Also the division conducts acid-fast bacterium (AFB) culture and identification tests. Through automated equipments for microscopic examination and the traditional biochemical tests, it offers fast and accurate results. In addition, it offers lists of patients with major hospital resistant bacteria to The Proper Care Division for the active nosocomial infection management.
Immune serology – As various basic antigen-antibody reaction tests, immune serology is used to diagnose some infections, tumors, autoimmune diseases, and allergies. There are several sub-tests such as latex agglutination test, enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, fluorescent antibody technique, chemiluminescence test, and the latest molecular genetic test. Generally, it is divided into immune serum test, allergy test, various infectious disease tests (viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites), autoimmune antibody test, tumor marker test, bone scanning, and skin reaction test. The division is also responsible for blood collection and specimen receipt.
Inspection of blood banks- Inspection of blood banks is the basic test for the blood transfusion so it conducts ABO/Rh typing, irregular antibodies sorting, and identification. Especially, for the safe blood transfusion, it checks compatibility of blood between receiver and giver, so it conducts Coombs, the most accurate cross-matching. Additionally, the division performs component transfusion and phlebotomy by serum replacement surgery and blood cell separator. Also it performs autologous transfusion which patients can keep their blood for their surgeries from 1990s.
Molecular genetics study -By the development of molecular biology and human genetics, many diseases were started to be understand in molecular levels. Preclinical and prenatal diagnoses are possible as well as diagnosis by carriers. There are two molecular biological tests which are useful to diagnose; molecular genetic test and cytogenetic test using chromosome are helpful for diagnosis. Molecular genetics professionals offer the best medical services by molecular genetic test, cytogenetic test, and flow cytometry.